Advertising Agency In Pune

..., pub-5099448806849756, DIRECT, f08c47fec0942fa0

Advertising Agency In Pune | Hoardings | Digital Marketing | Designing

header photo

Top 6 Types of Advertising Media (With Diagram)

Advertising message can be conveyed to the target audience through several advertising media. Advertiser must choose the right advertising media to carry the advertising message. A wide variety of media is used for publishing advertising message. Each medium has its relative advantages (merits), limitations (demerits), and applicability. Marketer can select those advertising media, which are suitable in all the important aspects.

Let us define advertising media:


1. Advertising media, also referred as ad media, can be defined as: Advertising media are the means or vehicles through which advertiser communicates his message to prospective customers to influence their behaviour.


2. Brennam defines: “The term ‘media’ consists of each and every method that the advertiser has at his command to carry his message to public.”

3. Finally, more clearly, we can say: Advertising media are the physical means whereby marketer tells the consumers about goods and services.

Types (or Classification) of Advertising Media:

Major advertising media, as shown in figure 2, include press media, direct advertising, outdoor media, audio-visual media, advertising specialties, and others.

Several advertising media, its relative advantage and disadvantages, and relevant details have been discussed here:

Types of Advertising Media

Press Media:

Press media are also called print media. Print media are popular and widely used for commercial advertising. A number of people can be addressed by print media. Attractive slogans, statements, words, figures, pictures, drawings, comparative statements, charts, etc., can be used for advertising the products in colorful and artful manner. Press media mainly involves newspapers, magazines, and other publications.

1. Newspapers:

Newspapers are a popular medium to contact or inform a large number of customers. Newspapers may be morning or evening; may be in English, Hindi or in other regional languages; may be daily or weekly; may be local, regional or national; or may be routine or special edition.

The company should consider circulation, language, geographical coverage, price, credibility, costs of buying space, and quality of printing while selecting a suitable newspaper. Pictures, slogans, figures, charts, etc., can be used. Company can used multi-coloured advertisement, too.


(a) Newspaper is fit for mass communication. Thousands and lakhs of people can be addressed at a time.

(b) Immediate or speedy message can be conveyed.

(c) Necessary changes can be made easily in regularly published advertisement and at low costs.

(d) Company can measure response immediately. Advertising effect can be assessed easily.

(e) Advertisers can take benefits of the credibility of newspapers.


(f) The medium is suitable for almost all types of products.

(g) It reduces tasks of salesmen and dealers.

(h) It is relatively a cheaper option. Per reader cost is very low.

(i) It is a more flexible advertising vehicle. As per need a company can prefer effective timings, languages, regions, and colour combinations.

(j) It is a simple and easy medium to access by advertiser and readers, etc.


(a) Newspapers have a shorter life, normally, a day. Long-term effect cannot be generated.

(b) Message may not be read. Advertising message is more likely to be ignored or avoided.

(c) Quality of paper and printing may reduce the value of advertisements published in newspapers.

(d) It is treated as an ordinary advertising means. It is not as impressive (or prestigious) as magazines and periodicals.

(e) This advertising medium is not fit for the live demonstration and the fine quality pictures.

(f) It is costly when customers are limited in number. (g) In case of written advertisement, the illiterate customers cannot read it. In countries like India, percentage of illiterate population is quite high.

(h) Normally, customers have to buy the newspapers. It is not cost-free medium like television or radio, etc.

2. Magazines:

Magazine is another popular and wisely used advertising medium. It is similar to newspapers with regard to many aspects. To consumers, magazines are treated as source of information and entertainment. A large variety of magazines or periodicals are published weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly, half-yearly or annually.

Magazines are also published by religious and social organisations, schools, colleges, university or educational associations, professional and commercial associations, governments, companies, etc. Similarly, magazines are classified in forms of sex, age, profession, industry, entertainment, and so forth. Based on customer characteristics, a proper magazine should be selected for publishing advertising message.


(a) Magazines have a long life. They can be referred repeated by many users.

(b) They are more effectives as they are referred by educated and special class during leisure time. Advertising message in magazine is more likely to be read, considered, and reacted.

(c) They are printed in better quality papers and effective or fault-free language.

(d) Magazine can appeal to the special groups of customers. For example, children, women, or professionals.

(e) It is a prestigious and credible vehicle to send advertising message.

(f) It is a flexible, elastic, and multipurpose medium as readers may find page tag, receipt, guidebook, catalogue, and picture, calendar, which can be detached and kept for the future reference.


1. Many magazines have limited circulation and, hence, limited prospects are appealed.

2. Continuity or consistency is not possible as magazines are published weekly, monthly, or quarterly.

3. Most of the magazines are small in size; a large advertisement is not possible.

4. Compared to newspapers, magazine is expensive vehicle in terms of both space and per reader costs.

5. Advertising copy and money are to be sent in advance.

3. Other Print Media:

Print media also include telephone directories, books, notebooks, reports, community and professional directories, bus or railway tickets and timetables, and special publications on the special events by schools, colleges, universities, local bodies, cooperative societies, companies, or governments.

Local manufacturers, professionals, dealers, retailers, etc., mostly prefer these media to advertise their products. This set of media is relatively cheaper. Most of these print media are used by many people and have long life compared to magazines and newspapers. Further, more selective advertisement is possible. Such print media are more or less similar to newspapers and magazines.

Direct or Mail Advertising:

Direct advertising can be defined as: Any form of advertising in which the message is directed to specific individuals directly by the advertiser. This medium consists of written, printed, or processed message delivered directly to the selected buyers. This set of media is used to appeal the target market directly.

In practice, it is not suitable for a large number of customers. This type of advertisement is mostly sent personally, or by post and courier services. In the age of information technology, fax, e-mail, and cell phone SMS are also famous modes to send direct mail in a limited scale.

Most commonly used methods for direct advertising are:

1. Sales letters:

The firm directly sends a written or printed letter to some or all customers. Such letters contain message, product description, special offers, etc. Sometimes, fully addressed and dully stamped reply envelope is also sent to get response. Sales letters can be sent to customers using different methods like courier services, paid persons, or postal services.

2. Fax:

Catalogue, invitation, launching of new product or any message can be sent through fax machine. However, company must know fax number of the receivers. Now, fax is used widely for different purposes. Words, pictures, tables, charts, symbols, etc., can be sent through fax. It can be used for limited customers, and is normally applied for industrial products.

3. E-mail:

E-mail is relatively new and popular tool for sending message. It is sent to special customers whose e-mail addresses are available or directly to all the account holders. For example, Hotmail or MSN Messenger services, G-Mail, Yahoo and many others provide free messenger services. However, advertiser has to pay for advertising his products.

4. Cards:

Cards are used to carry brief messages, acknowledge orders, remind customers, answer enquiries, update mailing list or to make special offers. Cards may be plain or coloured; multifold or single fold; or may be in forms of greetings or business letters.

5. Greetings:

Very popular means to establish relation with customers. The company maintaining a well-up-to-date customer database can send greeting cards on different events and occasions. Along with greetings, a brief message, picture of product or slogan with commercial value can be sent to customers and dealers.

6. Circulars and Leaflets:

Mostly, they are typed or printed on one or both sides. They may be in coloured papers. Circulars and leaflets involve description or special features of products. Many companies send circulars or leaflets on regular basis.

7. Catalogues, Folders, Booklets and Brochures:

They contain necessary information and are sent/offered to customers. Booklets are widely used by companies selling two- wheelers, refrigerators, television, or other technical products.

8. Calendars and Diaries:

Companies offer calendars or diaries, specially prepared as per their requirements, free-of-costs to customers and dealers, containing their names, symbols, brand names, slogans or pictures of the products. Diaries are more informative and expensive compared to calendars.

9. Others:

We may include other means used for direct advertisement.

Such means or vehicle include:

i. Data cards, samples, and gifts

ii. SMS – Short Mobile Message through cell phone

iii. House organs like story books, articles, cartoons, jokes, etc.

iv. Pamphlets, etc.

They are in-house sources of information; they are made available to customers at their places (home or offices). In fact, a large number of media are used for direct advertising. Each of the media has its merits, demerits, and applicability. We will evaluate these media jointly.


(a) It involves a direct and personalized appeal to the customers, and, hence, it is more effective.

(b) Advertiser has more flexibility to adjust with different types of customers and their needs.

(c) Especially, catalogues, booklets, circulars, fliers, broachers, and house organs are effective and have educative value.

(d) Advertiser has complete control on these media. They can be sent as and when it is desirable to be sent.

(e) It can clearly explain the main features of products with statistical data.

(f) More varieties are available. Advertiser can use different means of direct mail to attract customers’ attention and to arouse interest.


(a) This method is costlier as advertising message is conveyed personally. It involves both preparation costs and distribution costs.

(b) It involves a lot of clerical work. Special wing/office should be maintained for the purpose for regular mailing.

(c) It is applicable when the customers are limited.

(d) Many times, this method results into waste of time, money, and efforts. People really do not have interest in such mails. They believe that direct mail is just to promote sales.

(e) It is meaningful only if customers are able to read and understand.

(f) Virtually, personalized appeal is difficult as the company doesn’t have complete information of its buyers.

(g) Most people perceive e-mail, SMS, business letters, etc., as the nuisance. They hold negative attitudes toward those companies excessively practice this route for commercial ads. Some of these tools have more nuisance value than commercial value.

Outdoor or Mural Media:

Nowadays, outdoor advertising media are widely used for almost all types of goods and services. Outdoor media are excessively used by manufacturers and dealers, hotels, restaurants, academic institutions, airways, banks, insurance, etc.

Cold drinks, cements, cigarettes, petroleum products, and cosmetics products widely use these media for advertisement. They are also known as mural media. Those companies, which are not in position to spend huge amount on television, radio, newspapers or magazines, may opt for these media.

Most common outdoor advertising media have been briefly discussed below:

1. Banners:

They are used at popular places like cricket matches, tournaments, stage shows, fairs, talent shows, and annual functions of school, colleges and universities, seminars and conferences, or public meetings.

2. Special Signboards:

They are used at bus and railway satiations indicating route or platform number, or indicating name of roads and directions in the city. Most cell phone service providers including Vodafone, Idea Cellular, Airtel, etc., use this medium to popularize their name and brand.

3. Kiosk:

Square or triangle shaped boxes with written words or picture on them are hanged on electricity or telephone polls.

4. Billboards:

Special boards are prepared to advertise the product. Dealers or retailers put such boards nearby their shops, showrooms, shopping malls or on the upper sides of buildings.

5. Handbills:

They are very common and too cheap. Advertisement is printed on a piece of paper of small size. These leaflets are distributed hand to hand by a paid man, along with newspapers, or otherwise.

6. Station Posters:

Multi-coloured-printed posters with written message and pictures are stuck on walls, benches, insides the canteens, and inside and outsides bus stations, railway stations, and airports.

7. Sky Writing:

It is a novel and expensive vehicle to advertise the product. It is not very popular in our country. It involves showing words, symbols, or picture through gas during the night using plane, ballon, helicopter, or bursting.

8. Symbol of Product:

Giant size products, picture of products, or package of products are used for advertising purpose. Cadbury, Balaji Wafers, Coca-Cola, Maruti Car, Hero Honda, Natraj Pencil, etc., use this medium.

9. Neon Sign:

Neon tube lights are used for advertising. Words are written by neon tubes and are place on boards on buildings. Different coloured are used to make it attractive. This can be used only during the night. Cinema, business firms, banks, tuitions classes, and other professionals use neon signs to publish the advertising message.

10. Other Outdoor Media:

Other common and popular outdoor advertising media include:

i. Posters and wall paintings

ii. Hoarding on the road

iii. Vehicle advertising

iv. Sandwich man

v. Trade fair

vi. Balloons, etc.

There may be more outdoor media than listed above. Each of these media has its merits, demerits, and suitability. But, we will discuss merits and demerits jointly for ail the outdoor advertising media.


(a) Outdoor media do not require customers’ special time and efforts to read or watch.

(b) Outdoor media are capable to attract mass. Number of people can be attracted at a time.

(c) They are cheaper than newspapers, radio, film, and television.

(d) They are prepared in attractive and colourful manners. They are large in size to draw attention. They are eye-catching.

(e) They are placed at a place where people are more likely to view the advertisement, such as public places, like gardens, hospitals, bus stations, railway stations, aerodromes, traffic points, railway crossing, highway turns, road crossing, corners, etc.

(f) Some of them have long life (for example, hoardings, billboard, wall painting, etc.) They continue to advertise the same product for relatively a long time. They remain before the eyes of people for a long time.

(g) They can be highly selective. Words, slogan, description, symbols, picture, etc., can be easily used. Even, advertiser can place it anywhere he likes.

(h) They indirectly protect historical walls and buildings. They beautify different areas or localities. On highway, they are source of information and entertainment.


(a) People tend to overlook these media. People do not read or see such advertisements consciously and carefully.

(b) They may lead to accidents or mishaps. Interesting and exciting hoarding possibly leads mishaps.

(c) Hoardings, wall posters, station posters are not movable. They cannot be moved to other places.

(d) Direct effect cannot be measured.

(e) Use of these media in a large scale is expensive.

(f) Voice and live movements (i.e., audio-visual effect) like television and film advertisements cannot be presented.

Audio-Visual Media:

The media that can be seen and/or hear are known as audio-visual advertising media. In contemporary marketing environment, these media are the most popular means to send advertising message. Marketers are using aggressively the audio-visual vehicles to prove superiority of their products over the competitors.

These media, though expensive, are considered as the modern and prestigious among all the advertising media. This set of media is excessively used for all types of goods and services. Audio-visual media mainly include television, radio, short films, Internet, moving slides, film slides, etc.

1. Radio:

Perhaps it is the cheapest (in terms of per listener cost) and most pervasive among all media used for mass communication. It crosses the literacy barriers. Countrywide or on particular regions, the direct message is conveyed to the (desired group of) listeners.

Radio is used not only for advertising national programmes by the Government for Family Planning, vaccination, woman education, ecological conservation, erosion of superstitions, or any other programmes of social and national interest, but is also used by many companies for commercial advertising.

Insurance, banks, financial institutions, and manufacturers use radio to advertise their goods/ services. Advertisements are broadcasted before, after, or during specific (regional or national) programmes.

Some companies broadcast their own programmes or events of the social interest and get their products or activities advertised directly. Local radio (FM radio) is excessively used by local marketers like tuition classes, private colleges, hotels and restaurants, dealers and distributors of distributors consumer durables, and so forth.


(a) Radio is more effective than spoken words.

(b) Musical effects can be associated with message or slogan.

(c) Wide coverage, it reaches to every corner of the country or at particular region.

(d) Per contact cost is the lowest.

(e) The programme can be sponsored or purchased as per advertiser’s needs and objectives.

(f) It is more credible. No advertisement is broadcasted against general interest of the public.

(g) It suits the low-cost products like foods, drugs, cosmetics, etc.

(h) It promotes goodwill and prestige of an advertiser.


(a) Though per customer contact cost is the lowest, it is costly affair.

(b) Company has to compromise in terms of message, events, or time schedule.

(c) Only brief, sometimes not clear, message is conveyed.

(d) It is not suitable with all types of products.

(e) Mostly, advertisement appears during, before, or after the interesting programmes. People hear radio for programmes, and not for advertisement. So, message may not be properly attended. Advertising message is less significant than programme.

(f) It has a temporary effect. Hardly the customer inquires the products based on radio advertising message.

(g) It is not the sole medium to advertise the products. It is used as supplementary to other advertising media.

2. Television – TV:

It is the newest, fastest growing, and most popular advertising medium. It is a powerful medium for entertainment and advertisement. Now, television set is available at affordable price. Most of TV channels and local cable operators carry commercial advertisements. It appeals the people through the eye and the ear, i.e., it creates audio-visual effect. Products can be demonstrated as well as explained.

Written words, description, and slogans can also be depicted with pictures, package, and brand names and/or products. Now, film starts, cricketers, artists, and modeling personalities are excessively used to advertise different types of products.

Shahrukh Khan for Santro car and Dishtv, Amitabh and Sachin for Pepsi, Sachin for TVS Motor bike, Mathuri Dixit and Amitabh Bachhan for Himani costmatics, M. Dhoni for Milkshakti Buscuit, and such others are popular TV advertisements.

Camera and computer can create the highly impressive and effective combination of the events, words, slogan, and music. Advertisements appear in television during special events, like cricket match, film, thrilling news, or similar mega events, carry a heavy impression on customers. For example, TVS has earned the fame and sales in TVS Cup between India and West Indies in November, 2002.


(a) Millions of people can be exposed to the products.

(b) Company can appeal to the customers by two faculties (the eye and the ear) at a time. A long-term effect can be created.

(c) Live demonstration can be displayed. Customers are guided systematically.

(d) Television advertisement is also a great source of entertainment for children. Children are found uttering the slogans of various advertisements. It is an effective medium to popularize product within short period of time.

(e) Actual users can be demonstrated using the product. Users are shown using and enjoying the products.

(f) It is fit for the illiterate as well as the literate audience.

(g) Advertising during specific interesting events like films, cricket match, film fair, specific serials, or news carries a high degree of exposure.

(h) Television advertisement can be presented in the most effective and perfect way by using the latest animation technology or computer effect.

(i) Product can be attached to specific personality in the most effective way. For examples, Mathuri Dixit and Himani cosmetic products, Sachin Tendulkar and TVS Victor, Shahrukh and Santro car, Amitabh and Pepsi, etc. Personality of person becomes the identity of the product.


(a) Advertisement of the firm appears before, after, or in middle of the programmes along with various advertisements. In the same way, various companies jointly sponsor a programme. Each company tries to impress its viewers. Advertisement may not be effective to catch the attention and to create the identity. All advertisements are not carefully attended.

(b) It is the costliest medium to advertise the product. Only financially sound company can afford the medium.

(c) In case of film or serial, people avoid seeing commercial break. They relax during commercial break, shift to other channels or even switch off TV for three to five minutes.

(d) Television is a source of entertainment. Many advertisements are viewed for joy. Its commercial value may be undermined.

(e) Frequent commercial breaks for a few minutes during interesting programme affect adversely the interest of audience. They are disturbed or irritated; cannot tolerate the disturbance in an interesting story. They may develop prejudice or negative attitude towards the company whose advertisement disturbs during climax.

(f) Many viewers opine that advertisements create a nuisance on television. They are more company-centered and have nothing to do with consumer interest and welfare. They waste the valuable time of people.

(g) Television advertisement seems more artificial, superfluous, erotic, misleading, and full of exaggerations due to use of animation, virtual reality or special effects created by computer. People perceive vast difference between actual performance of products as against the claimed performance. It creates a big question against credibility of the TV advertisement.

3. Internet:

Internet is the latest medium to advertise products. Some companies put their advertisements on their websites; some companies buy web page of the popular websites. Even, sometimes, they place their advertising message directly on different websites.

Viewers just clicking on the name, address, picture, product, logo, brand, or slogan and can get full detail of a product or a company. To develop their own websites on Internet is also very common due to rapid practice of e-commerce or online transactions.

Most of the established companies, banks, insurance, and educational institutes have put their information of Internet. In India, use of Internet for advertising purpose is on increase. More than 100 million Indian access the Internet regularly.


(a) It has high credibility and prestige.

(b) Company can advertise its product globally.

(c) Advertisement can be prepared with multiple effects. Use of virtual reality makes advertisement interesting.

(d) It is highly suitable when the company wants to appeal to specific sophisticated groups of customers.

(e) Demonstration is possible.


(a) It has a limited utility. A few people can access the Internet. In developing and underdeveloped countries, it has limited use.

(b) It is not automatic. One has to log on to access a particular website.

(c) Only limited firms can use this sophisticated advertising vehicle.

(d) Internet users are highly professional and distinguished class of people and they hardly care for advertisements.

(e) It is costly to both company as well as Internet users (customers).

(f) People access websites for detail information only after they are impressed or exposed by the message appears in other advertising media. Thus, the medium is complementary to the rest of media.

4. Moving Slide:

This is mostly used in urban areas. Here, moving slides are used to advertise product. They are used for commercial or even for non-commercial purposes. Advertising message, picture of product, or logo of company moves either alternate or in one direction on the screen kept on private or public buildings.

Such slides are based on electricity or battery. However, use of electric circuit is very common. Nowadays, computer-based slides are very effective. Normally, it is a visual device. Voice is not associated. These slides are located in densely populated locality, corners, or near public places where a maximum number of people passes through.

Traffic points and railway crossing are among the most effective places. This medium is very effective during the night. Multi-coloured slides attract pedestrians and people passing through vehicles.


(a) This medium is much cheaper as compared to print and audiovisual media.

(b) It is very flexible. The firm can change as per needs from one locality to another. Even, contents can be changed easily.

(c) It is a source of entertainment as well as information.

(d) For local advertising message, it is very effective.

(e) It is highly selective. Company can advertise its product only in special locality.

(f) It beautifies the corner or public places.


(a) It is fit only for local advertisement.

(b) It has a limited exposure or reach.

(c) If company wants more slides at a different place, this medium becomes costly.

(d) Only visual message – but not voice – is transmitted.

(e) It is suitable for a short message.

(f) Live demonstration is not possible.

5. Film or Cinema:

Film advertisement mainly involves cinema slides and short films. A large number of people can be exposed through this medium. Advertisements are shown at theatres or at different places by projectors.

Short Films:

They are presented before films or during interval. Many companies use short films to advertise its products through cinema houses. It is a similar to television medium. Main difference between TV and short film is that film can expose only limited audience while TV is capable to contact millions of people at time.

For example, popular advertisements are Vico cream, toothpaste and powder, Niramia detergent cake and washing powder etc. Short films are shown along with non-commercial films during various events or functions such as seminars and similar events.


The alternate way to advertise the product in the theatre consists of slides. This medium is also used for both commercial as well non-commercial ads. Alike TV, it is a slide-cum-sound medium. Only demonstration of products – but not live presentation – is possible.

Here, slides consisting name of producers, products, logo, etc., are shown in theatres and at the place of special events. Advertisements are presented in theatre before and after film or during interval.


(a) It is less costly. Especially, slides are very cheaper.

(b) This medium is fit for literate as well illiterate people.

(c) Audiovisual effect is possible.

(d) It can be presented in different shows and in each show different people can be exposed to an advertising message. So, in case of the hit movies, a large number of people can be exposed.

(e) In short films, the live demonstration can be presented. Compared to TV, more information can be provided.


(a) Inattention is the basic problem. Audience is more interested in the movie than advertisement.

(b) Advertising the products by short films is costly. Its preparation is more costly than presentation.

(c) Only those who spend money to see movie in the theatre or participate in seminar, functions, etc., are exposed to the advertising message. So, compared to radio, television, or print media, it has extremely limited coverage.

(d) Such medium cannot be used in the areas where theatres or projectors are not available.

(e) Slides are less effective. People avoid attending ad slides.

(f) If not prepared carefully, slides, short films, or documentary result into irritation, boring, and misleading.

Advertising Specialties:

There are near about 5000 such items used for advertising products. Here, some items, either related to products or not, are offered to customers at free-of-charge. On such items, brand names, logo, or company name have been stamped or inscribed.

While using such products, consumers can know about name of company, brand, product, etc. Such items include pen, paperweight, lighter, purse, ring, belt, knife and other kitchenware, key-chain, bag, rain cap, or some extra accessories. These items can be offered to customers or dealers as the gift.

Other Media:

Apart from the media discussed in above part, there are various media frequently use for advertising the products.

Most widely used common advertising media are:

1. Window Display

2. Product Package

3. Counter Display

4. Special Display and Shows

5. Showrooms

6. Trade Fair and Exhibition, etc.

Several media discussed in the former part are among popular ad media. There can be more ad media. Any tool capable of carrying the message can be treated as advertising medium. It must be stated that above classification of media is not very strict. Chance of duplication of one or more media cannot be completely ignored.

Go Back


Blog Search

Blog Archive


There are currently no blog comments.